Sartre, Jean-Paul

(1905-1980)
   philosopher, writer, critic
   The leading exponent of existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris to a liberal Protestant bourgeois family and was raised by his mother and grandfather, a relative of albert schweitzer. Early in his life, Sartre developed his attitudes about himself, life, and society, and his vocation as a writer (Les Mots, 1964). While attending the École normale supérieure, he questioned with several of his classmates, including paul nizan, the values, privileges, and traditions of the bourgeoisie. He taught for a time at the lycée in Le Havre then, while a resident student at the French Institute in Berlin (1933-34), he developed his philosophy, combining the phenomenology of German philosopher Edmund Husserl, the metaphysics of Hegel and Heidegger, and the social theory of Marx into the single view of existentialism. His first philosophical writings (L'Imagination, 1936; Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions, 1939) made these thinkers, especially Heidegger, better known in France. During the World War ii, Sartre served in the military and was captured, then released. He taught for a while and served in the resistance. At that time, his major philosophic work, L'Être et le Néant (Being and Nothingness), was published (1943). He also wrote a play, Huis clos (1944), in which he states "Hell is others," affirming the existentialist view presented in earlier works. He continued to develop his philosophy in such works as L'existentialisme est un humanisme (1946). Sartre's writing include La Nausée (1938), Le Mur (1939), Les Chemins de la liberté (1945-49), Réflexions sur la question juive (1946), Baudelaire (1947), Saint Genet, comédien et martyr (1952), and Situations, a collection of articles (1947-65). His plays and adaptations have also known a wide audience (Les Mouches, 1943; Morts sans sépulture, 1946; La Putain respectueuse, 1946; Les Mains sales, 1948; Le Diable et le Bon Dieu, 1951; Kean, 1954; Nekrassov, 1955; Les Séquestres d'Altona, 1959; and an adaptation of Euripides' Trojans, 1965). Sartre, in a later philosophic work, Critique de la raison dialectique (1960, 1980, second edition), moved his emphasis from existential freedom and subjectivity to Marxist social determinism. Never joining the Communist Party, he remained free to criticize it and the action of Communist regimes. Sartre profoundly influenced the intellectual youth of the postwar era. He never ceased to question the contemporary world in the name of humankind and freedom participating in Bertrand Russell's tribunal, taking part in anticolonial struggles, refusing the Nobel Prize in literature in 1964, acting as director of La Cause du peuple, then of Libération until 1974. His last great work is an attempt at an integral biography of gustave flaubert (1971-72), and his correspondence revealed invaluable documents on the details of his life and relationships, notably with his companion simone de beauvoir (Lettres au Castor et à quelques autres, 1983).

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — Jean Paul Sartre [ʒɑ̃ˈpɔl saʀtʀ] (* 21. Juni 1905 in Paris; † 15. April 1980 ebenda; vollständiger Name Jean Paul Charles Aymard Sartre) war ein französischer Schriftsteller und Philosoph. Der politisch engagierte Verfasser zahlreicher Romane,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — born June 21, 1905, Paris, France died April 15, 1980, Paris French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and …   Universalium

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–1980)    The prolific, erudite Jean Paul Sartre significantly influenced the spheres of 20th century philosophy, politics and literature. The Parisian began his intellectual life at the select École Normale Supérieure, and in 1929 he… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–80)    Philosopher.    Sartre was born in Paris. He was a nephew of Albert schweitzer. He was educated in Paris and Berlin and it was there that he discovered German philosophy, particularly the works of hegel, heidegger and Husserl. With… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — ► (1905 80) Escritor francés. Popularizó en forma peculiar la doctrina existencialista, a través de novelas (La náusea, 1938; Los caminos de la libertad, 1945 49) y dramas, en los que demuestra una gran habilidad en el manejo de los recursos… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sartre,Jean Paul — Sar·tre (särʹtrə, särt), Jean Paul. 1905 1980. French writer and philosopher. A leading existentialist, he wrote literary works, such as the autobiographical novel Nausea (1938) and the play No Exit (1944), and philosophical volumes that include… …   Universalium

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–1980) French philosopher, novelist, and dominant French intellectual of his time. Sartre was born in Paris and educated at the École Normale Supérieure. From 1933 he studied in Germany with Husserl and Heidegger . His first novel, La Nausée …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905 80)    The leading philosopher of existentialism and in some ways the leading atheist of the twentieth century, Sartre did at least recognise that his atheism was just as much of a philosophical position as another s theism. In his earlier… …   Christian Philosophy

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — See Existence (Philosophy of) 2 …   History of philosophy

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905 80) A French existentialist writer and philosopher who attempted to develop a humanist critique of and philosophical foundation for Marxism . His most accessible work of interest to the social sciences is The Problem of Method (1957) but… …   Dictionary of sociology

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